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Positive Discipline: 23 Techniques

All parents want the best for their children, but sometimes we don’t have the knowledge to act properly. Educating is not an easy task. For this reason, it is essential to have resources to help us act out of understanding and kindness. Positive discipline is that tool for educating children through cooperation and mutual respect between parents and children.

Positive Discipline

What is positive discipline?

Positive discipline was developed by psychotherapist Alfred Alder and his apprentice Rudolf Dreikurs. Later, Jane Nelsen and Lynn Lott (founders of the American Association of Positive Discipline) regulated its principles and techniques.

Many times, when we hear the word “discipline” we associate it with negative factors, but the true meaning of this word is “disciple”. We could see our children as disciples who need our help during their development, in order to be free, happy and independent in the future.

Firm & Kind

Several studies have shown that children need to create significant relationships with the people closest to them, such as their parents, friends or teachers. The children who maintain these strong bonds generally behave better. Positive discipline is based on the premise “Firm & Kind” and reinforces these bonds through respect, understanding, self-esteem, communication.

Basic principles of positive discipline

  • Communication and understanding
  • Mutual respect between parents and children
  • Kindness and firmness
  • Strengthening bonds
  • Children’s active participation
  • Emotional and independent development

Positive discipline and why children misbehave

Children are children and sometimes they can make us despair when they don’t do what we expect. Perhaps that is the first mistake: “to expect something from them”. First, we shouldn’t expect their behavior to be one way or the other. We must understand that they don’t communicate like adults communicate, therefore we must the message they are trying to get across.

Positive Discipline To Educate

Rudolf Dreikurs mentioned: “When children don’t behave well, they are trying to say something in a different way than an adult would and therefore, we perceive it as the wrong way, without stopping to think that maybe it is the only way they can/know how to express themselves”. The reasons can be several; to claim our attention, boredom, hunger, etc. This is why important to empathize with our children to know the real reason their behaviors.

Positive discipline is not the same as being permissive

Positive discipline does not mean of it or of permissiveness. Nor does it resemble punitive discipline (based on punishment), since it makes children learn by feeling bad and by feeling afraid. With positive discipline, we are looking for long-term results. The objective is for children to understand why certain things are wrong and why they shouldn’t do them. We don’t impose punishments without knowing if children have really understood why they shouldn’t act in certain ways.

23 positive discipline techniques

Positive Discipline
  1. Self-monitoring
    Many parents lose a lot of energy trying to control their children, but the only behavior we can really control is our own. It’s up to us to adopt an attitude that benefits our mental health and not let difficult situations overwhelm us. We can redirect our children’s behavior and/or tell them what they can do, instead of focusing our attention on what they shouldn’t do. Transmitting safety and calmness will benefit the relationship with our little ones.
  2. Communication
    It’s the basis of every relationship. We must try to look for moments to connect with our children. For example, going for a snack after school, having breakfast together every morning before going to school, or even holding family gatherings. Keeping in touch with our children and up to date on possible problems they may have at school, after-school activities, etc., will help us understand their behavior.
  3. Showing interest
    Ask about our children’s interests, hobbies, and preferences. Making children feel valued strengthens their self-esteem and well-being. Avoid asking “Have you done your homework?” questions. If you know he hasn’t done his homework. We can replace it with phrases like: “I realize you haven’t done your homework”. That way we’ll prevent children from feeling trapped by our questions.
  4. Listening
    No matter how small they may be, they have their own feelings and emotions, listening to what they tell us will help us understand their behaviors. Through them, we have the opportunity to turn the world in a new and surprising way, like when we were children.
  5. Understanding
    Try to understand what is behind a bad behavior; it can be fatigue from school, after-school activities, being hungry, having a bad day, or being uncomfortable with something in particular. Finding out what is really happening to them will help us adopt effective solutions.
  6. Firm & Kind
    Be firm in your decisions but kind at the same time. Show understanding for them but do not give in. For example, the child wants to play video games when they get home but has homework to do. A “Firm & Kind” attitude would be: “I know you want to play video games, but first you have to do your homework and then you can play”.
  7. Be an example
    Children have many ways of learning, one of the best known is by imitation. If we try to keep our children from behaving in certain ways, we should be an example to them and make our words coincide with our actions. That is to say, we can’t tell them not to use their phones when we are eating but then use it ourselves. Being an example is fundamental for them to develop principles and positive values, so it is also important to constantly ask ourselves what mistakes we’re making and try to improve every day.
  8. Pay attention to effort rather than success
    It is very common to focus on success rather than on the efforts made. We all want our children to be the best in school and other activities, but this requires time and effort that must be valued even more than success. Imagine our child fails an exam. We agree that it is not a very high grade, but we must bear in mind that the child has improved, so we have to focus our attention on that.
  9. Seek solutions that involve children
    Let us imagine that our child is playing in the room. When we are going to call them to sit at the table for dinner, we notice that they have painted the wall with colored pencils. One solution that involves the child would be to tell them to clean the wall, or to clean it together.
  10. Taking Responsibility
    Teach them to take responsibility for their own actions. In this way, they learn to relate actions with consequences. We can try phrases like: “As you have done all your homework now we can go to the park”.
  11. Redirect actions
    Redirect actions that are not appropriate in a gentle and subtle way. Imagine that you are in the park and have been swinging for a long time and other children want to get on the swing. We can kindly invite our child to leave the swing and take them to the slide.
  12. Limits
    Limits are necessary to protect our children from danger and help them adapt to the world around us. It is important that children participate in these if they are 4 years and over. The decision should not be unilateral, as in this way we promote power and this can sometimes result in rebellion. For example, decide together when to go to bed or curfew hours.
  13. Natural consequences
    They are those that occur without the intervention of an adult. For example, the child does not want to eat the food and if they don’t eat it later they will be hungry (natural consequence). It is a matter of the child learning them by themselves. Avoid phrases such as “I told you so” or “I warned you”. These kinds of phrases can make a child feel humiliated. Do not forget that the main objective is that children learn and do not repeat the same mistakes, not that they realize that adults know everything.
  14. Logical Consequences
    Logical consequences require adult follow-up. For example: “If you go to bed late, I won’t have time to read you the story. Therefore, we decide a consequence for their actions directly related to unwanted behavior.
  15. Follow-up
    When we apply logical consequences, we must keep them constant. If we deem it appropriate, we can give them a new opportunity to fulfill them later.
  16. Avoiding rewards and punishments
    Prizes and punishments are arbitrary. The consequence is not directly related to the cause and promote authority and power, without regard to mutual respect. Try to replace them by applying logical consequences, as they are based on choice and understanding.
  17. Error = opportunity
    The word crisis in Chinese is composed of two characters, the first means danger and the second opportunity. A mistake is an opportunity to learn. We can let children make mistakes and learn for themselves. When they make mistakes, we will not give them the solution immediately. We can brainstorm and discuss the pros and cons together.
  18. Never use physical violence
    It is not advisable to use physical violence when children misbehave, as this teaches them that violence is okay. When we are very angry, we need to try to calm down and then adopt logical consequences from serenity. We must remember that no one is perfect and that we have all made mistakes.
  19. Time
    Devoting exclusive time to our children is fundamental. This will help to avoid tantrums, focusing too much on electronic devices or even waking up at night in search of our attention. It is advisable to quality invest with them, read them a story before going to bed or take advantage of meals and dinners to share with them.
  20. Tone of voice
    It is beneficial to address them in a friendly and loving tone, that will make it easier for them to pay attention and really listen to what we want to say to them. Perceiving the “sermon tone” will make them want to disconnect and not pay attention to our words. It is important to educate without shouting.
  21. Words
    Choosing the right words accompanied by the right tone of voice is essential for communication between parents and children to reflect respect and affection.
  22. Autonomy
    Although we sometimes have the instinct to protect them, it is not advisable to do so if we want them to grow up safely and independently. Children should be allowed to experience consequences based on their own actions and/or decisions (using common sense, of course). We should not do things that they can already do for themselves, so we will help them to be more autonomous.
  23. Patience
    Accumulated fatigue, stress, or self-demanding can easily cause us to lose patience. We are human and it is normal that sometimes we feel overwhelmed and lose patience with our children. We should not blame ourselves for this, we can look for activities that make us disconnect like sports or simply dedicate time to ourselves.

Associative Learning: Learning from association or relating several things

Associative Learning: How do punishments and rewards affect us? Have you ever wondered how we learn that something is dangerous or beneficial to us? What is associative learning? What is it for? What types are there? Discover here the answers to these questions and much more. In this article, we will explain in detail and give numerous examples to one of the most popular approaches to learning.

Associative Learning

What is Associative Learning?

Regardless of the environment, the method we use or our motives, learning consists in relatively stable changes in our behavior or our mind produced by experience.

How does our brain learn? Answering this question is a great challenge for psychologists and professionals from other disciplines dedicated to education. Experts strive to develop learning theories. In this article, we will talk about one of the most successful proposals.

The definition of associative learning encloses several different types of cognitive processes and events. It is a learning that takes place when two elements are connected in our brain. For example, if we associate the alarm clock to get up early, we will find out what this instrument is for and how little we like it.

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What is Associative Learning for?

Learning new content and constantly adapting to the circumstances is fundamental in all life stages. Progress in understanding this process favors the advancement of better educational methods and increase the common welfare. If we were not able to associate different ideas, we would be forced daily to ask how we get to our house or exposing us to dangers like fire after ignoring that it burns. We would have what is commonly called “three-second memory” or “fish memory”. Fortunately, we are able to connect the dots and associate different things for example, that water quenches thirst or that eating certain foods can give us allergies. 

How does associative learning take place?

The processes related to associative learning takes place through experience. Our experiences teach us what benefits us and what is harmful to us. Although we don’t always get the same results with the same acts, past events are a fairly reliable guide for our future actions.

Associative Learning: Types and examples

Animals have been the main protagonists in the experiments dedicated to deepening associative learning. Ivan Pavlov developed one of the most famous experiments in associative learning and psychology in general. In the 1980s this Russian physiologist observed how dogs salivated (unconditioned response) after seeing the food (unconditioned stimulus). He then decided to sound a neutral stimulus like a bell (conditioned stimulus) when presenting food to animals. The result was that the dogs began to salivate upon hearing this instrument (conditioned response). They had associated the sound of the bell with food.

The hippocampus role in associative learning

Strong learning-related patterns of neural activity are provided within cells in the hippocampus and they participate in the initial formation of new associative memories. There may be gradual recruitment of a network of hippocampal neurons during the formation of new associative memories. Other brain areas may be involved in associative learning including the prefrontal cortex (Asaad et al., 1998), frontal motor-related areas (Brasted and Wise, 2004; Chen and Wise, 1995a; Chen and Wise, 1995b; Mitz et al., 1991) and striatum (Brasted and Wise, 2004).

Associative learning: Types and examples

1. Classical conditioning

Classical conditioning is a type of associative learning based on the association between a neutral stimulus with another that is significant for a person or an animal in order to generate a similar response. It is the process we have seen previously with Pavlov’s dog.

A representative experiment in classical conditioning is that of Little Albert. It took place in 1920 and was carried out by Watson and Rayner. They felt that fear, anger, and love were the original patterns of emotional reactions in children and developed as they grew older.

Therefore, they decided to experiment with Albert, a small nine months remarkably undisturbed and in good health. Albert only reacted with fear to a thunderous sound caused by a steel bar being struck behind him.

Subsequently, they began to present white rats while causing noise. There was a firm association between these two stimuli that was generalized to others like soft cotton or a seal coat. Albert had developed a phobia of white or hairy objects or living things. Currently, it is absolutely forbidden to carry out research like this for obvious ethical reasons. The following video is the Little Albert experiment.

Imagine that you have dined your favorite dish. Then you lie quietly in bed. But for some reason totally foreign to your dinner, you vomit several times throughout the night. Most likely, your favorite food will start to look disgusting. This is an example of a process of classical conditioning. Has it ever happened to you?

Generalization and discrimination

Generalizing and discriminating helps us to adapt better to all kinds of contexts. For example, little Albert generalized his fear of several similar stimuli. Instead, a demonstration of discrimination occurs when we learn that we can only cross the street when the traffic light is green.


It consists of not associating the conditioned response with the unconditioned stimulus. For example, imagine that we associate exaggerating our qualities so people praise us. However, if one day our friends stop praising us regardless of the exceptional anecdotes we report, then we will stop using this technique and our behavior will be extinguished.

2. Operant or instrumental conditioning

This type of associative learning has many similarities with the previous one, like the existence of similar procedures of generalization, discrimination, and extinction. However, in operant conditioning, the individual is less passive than in the classical conditioning and his responses are not automatic. It is that the consequences of a person’s behavior produce changes in their learning, favoring the repetition of their actions or ceasing to occur. Skinner was an influential behavioral psychologist who continued to work on the ideas of Pavlov and Watson. He created the famous Skinner boxes, which were used to experiment with rats. A small dose of food was offered to these animals each time they hit a bar. At first, the rats pressed the bar out of curiosity or casually. However, when they realized that whenever they acted like that they were rewarded, they began to perform this act voluntarily. If you want to know more you can watch the following video.

Reinforcement and punishment

Reinforcements or prizes increase the likelihood that we will act in a certain way. On the one hand, there are positive reinforcers, which are the rewards given for performing certain behaviors (increased rat behaviors in the previous experiment). Another example is to make a compliment to a person who has done us a favor.

Associative learning- Operant Conditioning– Photo by Pet Education Committee

Negative reinforcements, on the other hand, are based on not presenting an unpleasant event. An example is avoiding a subject of conversation with a friend that you know will feel bad if you bring it up.

A punishment is an annoying consequence due to our acts. Its purpose is to reduce the likelihood that we will behave this way again. If we fail for studying at the last minute an important subject and we have to retake the test, it is quite possible that we try to improve our study habits and try to overcome procrastination.

Associative learning: Characteristics 

  •  Cognitive Processes are often overlooked: The main theorists of associative learning and their followers prefer to stick to observable events, such as behavior and the environment. Everything that is linked to cognitive processes remains relatively hidden and not analyzed by them.  
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  • It was investigated and explained by behaviorists: Behaviourism is one of the main focuses of psychology. Behaviorists discarded introspection to study this process. They were particularly concerned about achieving quantifiable results.
  • It is studied scientifically: The main theorists of associative learning worked laboratories under extremely rigorous conditions, relying especially on experiments with animals.
  • It is one of the bases in education: Rewards and punishments are often used while teaching. However, teaching is not the only profession that uses associative learning.

Associative learning: Applications

1. Examples of associative learning in the classroom

Associative learning in children has been and continues to be studied in depth. Teachers often use positive reinforcements such as putting star stickers on children who have behaved extraordinarily well. On the other hand, not reinforcing children who shout deliberately for attention or punish those who annoy their peers.

2. Examples of associative learning in therapy

There are several therapies based on associative learning. For example, systematic desensitization is a technique based on the principles of classical conditioning. It was created by Wolpe in 1958 and is used in therapy to reduce anxiety symptoms and avoidance behaviors manifested by people with problems such as phobias.
If a person feels an intense fear of heights (acrophobia), the psychologist can apply this technique. You will choose an answer that is incompatible with anxiety, such as relaxation. He will then ask his patient to imagine situations in which he progressively approaches the object of his fear.
The affected person should imagine their approach as clearly as possible and assess their anxiety. Meanwhile, you have to try to relax to be able to gradually face your phobia. Ultimately, the end of this procedure is for the patient to stop associating negative feelings with the object of his fear.

Systematic desensitization-Associative learning– Photo by SimplyPsychology.org

3. Day-to-day examples of associative learning

If you are listening to a particular song while telling you bad news, it is very likely that when you hear it again you immediately remember that event and how you felt.

When teenagers need to clean their rooms, parents almost always offer a reward or reinforcement in exchange. This is a perfect example of associative learning.

Examples of associative learning can be found in virtually every area of our lives.

Associative learning bias

Associative learning can also be viewed from a more cognitive approach. For example, it is possible to analyze cognitive biases (which are deviations in the usual process of reasoning) from this perspective. They originate when we associate one idea with another without adequately taking into account all relevant information.

For example, if a redhead steps on us by mistake in the subway and since then we consider that all redheads are clumsy, we will be acting under the effect of a cognitive bias. On the other hand, if we learn to blame ourselves for any negative events that take place, it is possible to give rise to biases so negative that they become cognitive distortions.

Associative learning: Authors

– Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)

This reputed physiologist won a Nobel Prize in 1904 for his studies on the digestive secretions of dogs. We have previously commented on his experiment with animals.

– Edward Thorndike (1874-1949)

He was a famous psychologist dedicated to research on education and learning from an instrumental conditioning approach. He designed problem boxes to examine how cats managed to get out of them by trial and error. He also enunciated the law of effect, which states that behaviors that report benefits are more likely to remain.

– John B. Watson (1874-1958)

Watson was a behavioral psychologist firmly convinced that anyone can be trained successfully to behave in a certain way. In fact, he was the author, along with his assistant, Rosalie Rayner, of Little Albert’s experiment.

– Edwing Guthrie (1886-1959)

This philosopher dedicated to psychology did not believe that the reinforcements were absolutely essential for the conditioning to take place. Inspired by Pavlov, he argued that the connection between a stimulus and a response was established from the first time they happened together.

– Burrhus F. Skinner (1904-1990)

He was an influential behaviorist psychologist who developed the ideas of his predecessors. He created the Skinner boxes used to investigate operant conditioning. He also insisted heavily on focusing on observable behavior to achieve a totally scientific and rigorous psychology.

– Joseph Wolpe (1915-1997)

He is the creator of systematic desensitization, which we have explained previously. He felt that you can’t feel two opposing emotions at once. Therefore, their goal was to relax people to lessen their anxiety reactions and that way fear is unleashed.

Finally, we want to add that there are other explanations that seek to clarify how we learn such as meaningful learning, social learning theory, cognitive learning, etc. 

We invite you to look up these approaches as well since each one has a different way of looking at reality.  However, many also complement each other. In fact, associative learning theorists now contemplate new, more inclusive perspectives.

Thank you very much for reading this article. Do not hesitate to comment if you have any questions or if you want to share some experiences with us. We will be happy to answer all your questions.

This article is originally in Spanish written by Ainhoa Arranz Aldana, translated by Alejandra Salazar. 

Rote Learning: Retaining Information Without Deepening Its Meaning

Do you remember when you learned to multiply? You repeat the same multiplication tables over and over. This is a technique called rote learning. Do you think this is a good learning method? In what cases do you think it can work? Do you often use rote learning? In this article we will delve into the characteristics of rote learning, its advantages and disadvantages, examples and also contrast with other types of learning. In addition, we will give you five tips to memorize.

Rote Learning

What is rote learning?

Learning is based on relatively stable changes in behavior or mind that take place through experience. There are several learning theories dedicated to exploring how our brain learns.

Rote learning is based on mentally retaining data through repetition without processing it carefully. The memorized contents are not understood and no attempt is made to analyze their meaning. It is just mere repetition, enough times until they are retained in our memory.

Memory is one of our basic cognitive processes. It helps us to encode, consolidate and retrieve data later. The interaction between memory and learning is essential both in our education and in all areas of our lives. However, it is also relevant that their relationship helps us process the data properly and progress in our development.

Rote Learning – Features

  • It is the most basic type of learning.
  • It’s mechanical.
  • The contents are arbitrarily related.
  • Retention data are usually stored in short-term memory.
  • The information is easily forgotten.
  • This type of learning is usually discouraged.

Rote learning – Examples

Rote learning in education

Rote learning is used quite a lot in school.  Generally, we remember repeating multiplication tables without understanding what we would do later with this information.

We also learned simple mathematical formulas and as many data related to numbers. However, it is not only used in math but also in other subjects. We used rote learning to learn the countries and their capitals, states, rivers, musical notes, elements of the periodic table, etc.

At university and even in working life, data are still retained without processing them in depth. This type of learning accompanies us throughout all the stages of our life.

Rote learning in everyday life

How did you learn your phone number, your partner’s birthday, your job address, social security number?

Rote learning helps us get throughout life without having to process everything we need at a certain point.

Rote learning

Rote Learning – Advantages and Disadvantages

Advantages of rote learning:

  • It helps us to retain important data like dates.
  • It’s a quick procedure.
  • It is relatively simple.

Disadvantages of rote learning:

  • It is easily forgotten.
  • It doesn’t allow us to examine the information in depth.
  • It doesn’t motivate us to continue learning data related to what we memorize.

Among students, it is quite common to take an exam relying on rote learning. However, when the question is relatively ambiguous or critical thinking is asked, the security of memorized information begins to fade.

Rote learning Vs Other Learning Types

Every situation requires different types of learning and each person uses their own learning methods.

1. Meaningful learning

Rote learning is closely linked to meaningful learning. David Ausubel was influenced by Piaget and developed the theory of meaningful learning. This theory maintains that we add content to the information we had previously. We adapt the data so that we can rank it and it can make sense for us.

Ausubel was a constructivist, this implies that he considered we are responsible for building our own reality and for our learning process. Meaningful learning contrasts sharply with memory, as it encourages people to learn, analyze and transform information to get new ideas.

Are rote learning and meaningful learning compatible?

We can imagine learning as a continuum at the ends of which are rote learning and meaningful learning on opposite sides. That is, it is possible to retain data using strategies relating to both types of procedures.

We can also consider rote learning as part of meaningful learning. In fact, both procedures can be complementary. Memory plays a vital role in learning. Even so, it is advisable to memorize the contents while trying to understand them.

For example, if we are trying to study US History, we are conscientiously reviewing each chapter and connecting it with experiences of our daily life, however, we will also need to memorize relevant dates to understand the historical context of the facts.

2. Associative learning

When this process occurs, we establish connections between two distinct stimuli. For example, it happens when we associate a certain smell with a certain person and we remember them every time we perceive a similar aroma.

3. Observational learning

Bandura’s theory of social learning explains how we acquire certain knowledge or behaviors through the situations we see. Still, he insists we are not robots. For example, if we live with people who speak very loudly, it is likely that we will also raise our voice.

4. Receptive learning

This type of learning is also passive, but it is not just about memorizing, it involves understanding the new information. A very common example is in classrooms when students simply listen to the teacher. Subsequently, the students reproduce the contents in the exam without internalizing their ideas or analyzing them personally.

5. Emotional learning

It is the one that helps us throughout our lives to understand and manage our own emotions. We practice emotional intelligence in situations such as patiently listening to a friend’s dilemmas or communicating how we feel at a given moment.

Rote Learning: 5 Tips to Memorize

Although it is advisable to acquire the necessary tools to know how to connect later the contents we learn with new ones, we can also benefit from rote learning for tasks such as remembering the names of our new co-workers. Find out five recommendations here to use rote learning effectively.

1. Organize information in blocks

George Miller, a cognitive psychologist, published an article called “The Magic Number Seven Plus Two” that dealt with the breadth of our short-term memory. 

According to Miller, we can retain five to nine data without grouping them together. On the other hand, if we divide them into groups (chunking), our ability to work with these elements will increase. For example, if we want to remember the list of purchases, we will find it useful to divide it into fruits, vegetables, cleaning products, etc.

2. Use mnemonic rules

The Loci Method is the oldest known mnemonic technique. It consists in associating visually the elements that we wish to remember to certain places. For example, if you want to remember what to have to say during a presentation, you can associate each part with a portion of your journey to work, and recite them. This way you will not forget the order and can relate to images you see constantly.

However, there are different modalities of mnemonic rules. It is also possible and useful to invent new words with the initials of the words we want to remember, to associate songs with sentences, etc.

3. Try to repeat out loud without making mistakes

Imagine your goal is to learn your new class schedule. Read the data you want to remember out loud as often as you need to. When you feel ready try to say it calmly.

Take it slowly and repeat them as many times as you need to since this is a matter of practice. 

4. Use color psychology

Each color transmits certain sensations and is commonly associated with very characteristic meanings. For example, red alerts us and reminds us of blood, love or suspense. On the other hand, white evokes tranquility, peace, and perfection (in our culture). You can take advantage of concepts related to colors to link them to the content that interests you.

5. Uses CogniFit

Neuroeducation is allowing amazing strides to be made in the field of learning. We can now benefit from clinical assessment tools and cognitive stimulation with which it is possible to easily detect our strengths and weaknesses at the cognitive level.

In fact, CogniFit is a leader in this field. It is an online platform that allows us to train our memory and other cognitive skills through entertaining and useful mental games. Challenge yourself, improve and train your memory!

Rote Learning

Thank you very much for reading this article. If you have any questions don’t hesitate to comment below.

This article is originally in Spanish written by Ainhoa Arranz Aldana, translated by Alejandra Salazar. 

Blended Learning: Why It’s Taking The Lead In Education

We have all used different methods of ‘blended learning’ models when being educated in our classrooms and trained in the workplace. Whether we realized it or not, blended learning has been incorporated in most institutions and companies through various technology platforms designed to enhance the learner’s needs since the term was coined in the late nineties. Learn more about blended learning in this full guide. 

Blended Learning

What is Blended Learning?

Although the term is quite ambiguous, it can extensively be defined as: ‘any formal education program in which a student learns at least in part through online learning, with some element of student control over time, place, path, and/or pace’ (Blended Learning Universe, 2016). Children are born into this digital world and are already exposed and using technology as early as the age of 1. According to a study presented at the 2015 U.S. Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting, more than one in three children have used a smartphone or tablet device before the age of one meaning that children today are more tech-savvy than ever before. The development of blended courses has been based on a strategy that encourages the use of technology along with face-to-face instruction. Studies predict that by 2019, 50% of high school courses will be available and delivered online. The blended learning approach is flexible in presenting content, has proven potential to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of learning experiences, and is personalized making it easier for students to contribute and learn at their own pace. It is not surprising that blended learning methods

Children are born into this digital world and are already exposed and using technology as early as the age of 1. According to a study presented at the 2015 U.S. Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting, more than one in three children have used a smartphone or tablet device before the age of one meaning that children today are more tech-savvy than ever before.

The development of blended courses has been based on a strategy that encourages the use of technology along with face-to-face instruction. Studies predict that by 2019, 50% of high school courses will be available and delivered online. The blended learning approach is flexible in presenting content, has proven potential to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of learning experiences, and is personalized making it easier for students to contribute and learn at their own pace. It is not surprising that blended learning methods are benefiting as an integrated learning experience throughout the U.S.

Horn and Staker (2015) define Blended Learning as “…any formal education program in which a student learns at least in part through online learning, with some element of student control over time, place, path, and/or pace.”

The approach of blended learning is to utilize the use of technology in the classroom to optimize student education through online and face-to-face interaction. The usage of blended learning gives us an opportunity to reform the traditional school model and to express student-centered learning.

How does Blended Learning Work? What is being ‘Blended?’

When educators implement a new learning program, it is important to recognize the learners’ needs and abilities in order to make learning a meaningful and emotional experience.The complexity of our neural networks allows us to have unique individual preferences and learning styles. Blended Learning can be applied right in the traditional setting of a classroom.

Depending on the teacher, different models are used to support the use of technology to expand learning materials and discussion both inside and outside of the classroom. A true ‘blend’ of instruction uses elements that help students and teachers communicate inside and outside of the classroom. Using digital tools for learning such as Google Docs and Word do not necessarily apply to this method.

Instead, blended learning is an integrated learning experience that provides modules to blend the course of study with a teacher being active in the process. An example would be students attending class face-to-face and then go home to have a virtual meeting lecture on the computer and coming back the next day to discuss everything in small groups during a lab.

There is almost always a type of tracking system implemented on the site to track students’ progress. Sometimes it is easy to confuse the blended learning method with a “technology-rich” classroom. Both share the usage of technology and digital tools but are certainly not the same thing. Teachers using only digital textbooks, learning apps, online lesson plans, and Google Docs do not qualify as the blended learning curricula. Students must have some type of control at their own pace for individualized learning. Presently, blended learning does not have one main authority definition. The combination of intellectual methods are made up of information technology, video conferences, and the use of online activities and learning support systems such as self-paced lessons.

Six common models being used today are explained below.

What are the Types of Blended Learning Models?

There are six standard models of blended learning used for teachers. Three models address the different cognitive and social-emotional abilities of students. The six types are identified as:

  • Face-to-Face Driver is represented as the most traditional by having a physical teacher present or to employ online learning.
  • Rotation means that students will alternate between self-paced online learning and being in the classroom with a teacher. This model includes four sub-models: Station Rotation, Lab Rotation, Flipped Classroom, and Individual Rotation. In the ‘flipping’ method, professors and teachers use online media to deliver lectures, notes, and feedback. Students can study and review the material at their own pace. The model is implemented with a student-centered perspective which allows students to learn individually.
  • Flex is the online platform used.
  • Online Lab delivers the course in a brick-and-mortar (traditional) setting.
  • Self-Blend model, more commonly known as A La Carte, gives students the freedom to choose remote online courses to supplement their school’s curriculum with something that is more individual. The students can take multiple courses either entirely online at home or in a regular classroom.
  • Online Driver program is also known as Enriched Virtual is used completely online where students can divide their time between a traditional classroom and at home. Unlike the Flipped classroom, the Online Driver does not require daily school attendance. Teachers can apply their programs to have available or mandatory face-to-face check-ins. The Enriched Virtual program is a complete blend of online and brick-and-mortar classroom sessions.

How Does Blended Learning Differ from Traditional Learning?

The rise of blended learning programs represents a shift from traditional instruction in education to optimize student learning in multiple ways. The mixture of this learning experience has allowed learners to recall information so that it can be remembered and combined with new knowledge bases.

Personalized learning is excellent for students who feel lost and overwhelmed in the classroom. The old brick-and-mortar classroom with students learning from one textbook is long, long gone. Blended learning methods help students learn at their own cognitive level of functioning. The Face-to-Face Driver model works best in all classrooms since most students are functioning at different levels of ability. Teachers deliver this model appropriately by allowing a traditional classroom experience and integrating technology. Students who do not feel confident in their work can access the course from home and study at their own pace while students who have mastered the subject can practice and challenge themselves more effectively.

The Rotation model is the most common and allows teachers to switch instructing online and physically face-to-face. Students can be separated based on skill level such as starting instruction in-person before rotating online. More individual assistance is also given to students feeling left behind on a topic. Another model that is viewed as highly successful is the Online Lab school model. It involves students going to a physical classroom that only provides online educational delivery for its courses. The Online Lab is flexible and benefits students who have other responsibilities either at home or they need to move at a much slower pace than traditional classrooms provide. One of the main goals of a blended classroom involves the mission to capture the learners’ attention.

Many instructors design their teaching to acquire the use of both long-term memory and short-term/working memory. Working/short-term memory has to do with what you are actively doing at the moment and temporarily storing information, such as solving math problems.  Long-term memory helps us remember rules and knowledge that is ‘declared.’ An example of declared memory would be having the order of operations memorized. In virtual classrooms, instructors must make sure there is harmony between working and long-term memory. An information overload in a blended approach can cause anxiety and stress. It is important for instructors to design their programs with a few facts in mind:

  • Humans have a working memory limited to five to seven ‘chunks’ of information
  • Humans must have their attention refreshed frequently
  • Recalling information requires more cognitive effort than recognizing information (Marchionini, 1991)

Teachers can add more drop-down menus, touch panels, and clearly marked buttons to put the students’ minds at ease. More information on some challenges of blended learning can be found in the Research in Learning Technology journal. E-learning specialists are taking neuroscience into consideration when developing visual aids for learning. According to Zabisco, 40% of people will respond better to visual information than plain text. When learners are connecting with the content, they are going through a cognitive retention process. The medial temporal lobe, where emotions are processed, is also where visual memory is encoded. Students will have a better chance at remembering when text is combined with visual stimuli.

Students can also develop stronger social-emotional learning (SEL) skills when interacting in a blended program. SEL skills are linked to technology use since students can first develop self-awareness and responsibility online to work better in teams when in person. Aside from the traditional objectives in school systems, the new integration of technology and teaching helps bring teachers and students closer together and establish higher quality learning.

How are Blended Learning Environments Created?

Educators should first seek out different strategies to use when designing which type of content would fit best in their classroom. They can use different frameworks such as Content Domain Analysis and Content Level Analysis before going about choosing their blended learning approach. Content Domain Analysis determines the main objectives of the content. It is necessary when it addresses the learners’ needs emotionally, cognitively, and physically. Content Level Analysis is used to clarify the sequence to achieve overall learning goals. One study that consisted of using a blended learning platform (video game-based learning) composed of classroom and e-learning, found that knowledge was increased 14% for procedural and 11% for declarative knowledge (Sitzmann, Ely, 2009).

Declarative knowledge refers to factual knowledge and information that a person knows. Procedural knowledge, on the other hand, has to do with knowing how to perform certain activities (Bruning, 46). These two types of knowledge are useful for determining how to blend face-to-face and self-paced learning courses. An example would be using self-paced and e-learning for developing declarative knowledge while having face-to-face instruction in small groups for procedural knowledge. That way, students can expand on their ‘factual’ knowledge and perform what they have learned with other students and instructors in a classroom lab. Margaret Driscoll (2002) believes that the blended learning paradigm consists of four concepts: combining a variety of networking technologies, self-paced learning, collaborative learning, and streaming videos. The teaching methods used should incorporate many types of psychologyconstructivism, behaviorism, and cognitivism. In order to produce the best outcome, the combination of the blended techniques (web-based, film) with face-to-face training followed by students completing an actual task in-person, can equally create a balance between learning and working.

Blended Learning: A Student-Centered Education

Over the past decade, educators in both secondary and higher educational institutions have realized that students all differ in skill sets and learning abilities. The Whole Child Approach (2014) ensures that each child will be treated as a whole with their socio-emotional, physical, creative, and cognitive capacities being just as important in their overall educational growth. In order to see where a student’s skills lie on the spectrum, a cognitive profile screening can be implemented before selecting the appropriate learning model. Children can be screened at a young age so that their personal learning abilities can be catered to. Developing a blended learning approach in all educational institutions is one step in the right direction to help every child succeed. The models also build upon Dr. Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences (1983) by selecting strategies to trigger the strength of the students’ multiple learning preferences.

The blended learning paradigm of e-learning with a person-centered approach aims to achieve social and personal development by combining online instruction and face-to-face encounters. Student-centered learning brings out the best in a person’s cognitive functioning. Studies show that it can help with better problem-solving, increased self-confidence, and improve interpersonal skills. Person-Centered Learning was developed by the American psychologist Carl Rogers (1902-1987) to address the learner’s intellect, social skills, and personality.

One study targeted the fundamental impact of interpersonal attitudes on the motivation and learning outcomes of students. The study suggested that a blended learning paradigm in which there is room for social and personal processes leads to improved learning only if instructors are perceived as personally well equipped to fill this space (Pitrik & Mallich, 2004). From a perspective of learners, blended learning can be obtained from all options of equipment, tools, media, technology, etc. to match their previous knowledge and learning style to reach current learning objectives.

Blended Learning in the Workplace

There are many advantages to applying blended learning approaches in corporate settings. Face-to-Face instruction and using technology hands-on offers employees a customized training experience. This method allowed employers to track performance goals and concentrate on what skills need further development.

Employees can work on their training off-the-clock to catch up on certain things they need to know for their job duties and reduce job stress. Guides such as tutorials, online forums, and customer-based simulations are all great examples of types of blended learning approaches in the workplace. Organizational learning programs can build employees’ confidence level to improve their job performance and benefit their teamwork skills. In 2015, a Training Magazine learning survey reported that 31.9% of all training was delivered in a blended format. Employees should be encouraged to work on specific skills needed in their workplace.

Companies can help fill skill gaps by determining which eLearning curriculum is needed. An example would be a person working on his or her communication skills at in a web-based seminar that depicts eLearning characters with different personalities. Collaborative activities are also becoming popular to improve teamwork skills.

Blended Learning: The New Future of Education 

A one-size-fits-all educational model does not exist, however, blended and hybrid classrooms are shown to be more effective than traditional teaching methods. While students are becoming more digitally-orientated, educational institutions should be using this as an advantage to further students’ educational success.

A successful classroom includes a range of meaningful activities, assessments, and methods used for the sole purpose of giving every student chance to excel at their best abilities. The elements that make blended approaches so effective are using multiple technology tools, small group work, and freedom of choice. In this study by the Christensen Institute, education researchers said that 4 million elementary through high school student participated in online learning in 2010. The statistics have only shown an increase since then.

Technology and education go hand in hand when teaching and improving cognitive abilities. CogniFit’s brain training program allows not only for students and anyone to train cognitive processes but allow for teachers to keep track of their students through our education platform for school and teachers.

CogniFit- Blended Learning

There must be more blended learning research to gain insight on how it is making an impact through the years. Educators will continue to invent new methodologies for personalized learning models by collaborating our knowledge of individualism with our digital culture.

1. Which isn't one of the four sub-models of Rotation?
  • Hint: Look at flow chart!


Ark, T. V. (2016, April 27). Blended, Project-Based and Social-Emotional Learning at Thrive Public Schools. Retrieved August 15, 2017, from http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/on_innovation/2016/04/blended_project-based_and_social_emotional_learning_at_thrive_public_schools.html?cmp=eml-enl-eu-news3

Assisi, N. (2014, November 24). The Importance of Social-Emotional Learning in K-12 Education. Retrieved August 15, 2017, from http://nextgenlearning.org/blog/importance-social-emotional-learning-k-12-education

Bruning, R. H. (2010). Cognitive Psychology and Instruction (5th ed.). Pearson.

Draffan, E. A., & Rainger, P. (2006). A model for the identification of challenges to blended learning. Research in Learning Technology, 14(1), 55-67. doi: 10.1080/09687760500479787

Marchionini, G. (1991, October). Psychological Dimensions of User-Computer Interfaces. Retrieved August 17, 2017, from https://www.ericdigests.org/1992-5/user.htm

Mylavarapu, L. (2016, September 30). The Power Visualization Adds to E-learning. Retrieved August 15, 2017, from http://www.elearninglearning.com/blended-learning/cognitive/?open-article-id=5625428&article-title=the-power-visualization-adds-to-e-learning&blog-domain=commlabindia.com&blog-title=commlab-india

Staker, H. (2011). The Rise of K-12 Blended Learning: Profiles of Emerging Models. Innosight Institute.

Willen, L. (2014, May 12). The Learning Accelerator on blended learning: `In the future, we’ll just call it learning’. Retrieved August 15, 2017, from http://digital.hechingerreport.org/content/learning-accelerator-blended-learning-future-well-just-call-learning_1462/

Mirror neurons: The most powerful learning tool

Mirror neurons. Imitation has always been a powerful learning tool. The human brain is enabled with different mechanisms that allow us to imitate actions. Babies are capable of reproducing facial expressions, and as adults, we imitate basic behavior. Laughter can be spread, we can cry while watching a sad movie… It seems like we have the capacity to feel what others feel, empathize with them and understand their feelings. What happens in the brain for this to happen? The answer is mirror neurons. In this article, we will explain everything you need to know about mirror neurons. What are they? How do they intervene in education and empathy? Why is emotion contagious? 

What are Mirror Neurons? Photo by Vince Fleming on Unsplash

What are Mirror Neurons?

In humans and primate species there are neurons called Mirror Neurons. These brain cells activate when we see someone doing something. For example, when a chimpanzee sees its mother opening a nut with a rock and then tries to imitate her with another nut. Mirror neurons are related with empathic, social and imitations behavior. They are a fundamental tool for learning.

“We are social beings. Our survival depends on our understanding the actions, intentions, and emotions of others. Mirror neurons allow us to understand other people’s mind, not only through conceptual reasoning but through imitation. Feeling, not thinking.”- G.Rizzolatti.

In the 90’s a group of neuroscientists, directed by Giacomo Rizzolatti from the University of Parma (Italy), discovered something surprising. A hundred group of neurons in the brain in primates were activated not only when the monkey was doing something but also when the monkey saw another one doing that same action.

Mirror neurons can be defined as a group of neurons that activate when we perform an action or when we see an action being performed. 

Mirror neurons are essential for imitation which is key in the learning process. From birth these group of neurons are active and it allows us to learn to eat, dress, speak… Mirror neurons are also important in planning our actions as well as understanding intentions behind actions.

In the next video, Ramachandran a neuroscientist, explains what are mirror neurons and why they are important.

Mirror Neurons and Education

Mirror neurons allow us to learn through imitation. They enable us to reflect body language, facial expressions, and emotions. Mirror neurons play an essential part in our social life. They are key for the child development, as well as relationships and education.

Humans are social beings programmed to learn from others. We all reach our goals working as a group than individually. Seeing a parent, professor or student show a cognitive skill or any other skill, gives us a tangible experience rather than learning from explanation.

How do mirror neurons intervene in our daily lives?

  • Mirror neurons are responsible for yawning when we see someone else yawn.
  • These neurons also act when we see someone sad or crying and in turn feel sad.
  • The same thing happens with smiling or laughing. The way laughter can be contagious.
  • Studies suggest that there is an activation of the anterior insula when we see someone expressing disgust.
  • Another study shows that the somatosensory cortex is activated when we see someone touching another person the same way it activates when we are the ones being touched.

8 tips: How do mirror neurons influence education?

Thanks to mirror neurons the emotions we portray have a direct influence on others. This is why teachers have to make the effort to control their emotions, avoid teacher burnout, in order to use mirror neurons as an asset.

  1. Show happiness and optimism and that way you will transmit that to your students and children.
  2. Control and avoid negative emotions. We all have bad days but teachers have to be sure this doesn’t reflect on the children. However, the tricky part is that this doesn’t mean children should repress these emotions. As a teacher be sure to detect what emotion the child is feeling and help them learn to identify and manage them accordingly.
  3. Use visual signs and imitation any chance you get. Make examples practical with physical demonstrations so that children can imitate you.
  4. Encourage group interactions. This will maximize the use of mirror neurons and therefore the child’s social relationships and empathy.
  5. Use imitation in any activity that you want the children to learn (washing teeth, cleaning up after themselves…)
  6. Run from violence. Children learn what they see. If a child is educated in a hostile environment, his mirror neurons will activate and he might repeat these violent behaviors.
  7. Teach children the importance of how we listen, particularly body language. That way when someone has to share something or needs help the mirror neurons will activate and empathy will be reinforced.
  8. Teach children about emotional intelligence so that they can be able to identify their own and other people’s emotions.

Mirror Neurons and Emotional Contagion

Do you feel happy when people around you are happy? Do you get sad or depressed around negative and pessimistic people? This is due to the emotional contagion produced by the mirror neurons.

Emotional Contagion is a process through which a person or group influence the emotions and emotional behavior of another person or group. This can be done through emotional induction conscious or unconscious.

When people communicate they have the tendency to imitate gestures and facial expressions and in many cases feel what others are feeling. It has been proven the high impact emotional contagion has in our personal and work relationships. We are still not conscious of the influential ability we have in other people’s emotional state and in turn other people on our own emotional state.

Mirror neurons allow us to literally feel what others are feeling and “live” their emotions. Mirror neurons are based on empathy.

Empathy is the ability to share someone else’s feelings or experiences by imagining what it would be like to be in that person’s situation.

This is proof that we are social beings. Empathy has been essential to our species survival and shows how without attachments and protection we wouldn’t have survived.

How can we take advantage of emotional contagion?

The fact that we can interconnect to each other and understand each other’s feelings can work to our advantage.

  • Happiness is more contagious than sadness, so try to surround yourself with happy people. However, don’t avoid people who are sad, we all need support sometimes and giving them love might help them recover faster.
  • Imitate happy and positive people, do what they do. Practice sports and smile more (even if you don’t feel like it, you will later feel better). Keep a healthy self-esteem and stop thinking negatively.
  • Think before acting or saying anything, especially if its negative. Try to say it politely, educated and as calmly as possible since your emotional state can be contagious.

Check out how laughter can be contagious with this video.


Mirror Neurons and Culture

Does culture influence our brain? The answer seems to be yes. According to an investigation from the University of California, mirror neurons respond differently if the person in front of us shares our same culture or not.

Researchers used two actors, one American and another Nicaraguan to show a group of American participants a series of gestures (some American, others Nicaraguan and others without cultural meaning).

With Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) they investigated mirror neuron activities. They found that participants showed more activity when they saw the American do the gestures in comparison to the Nicaraguan. When the Nicaraguan showed American gestures to the group, the mirror neurons decreased their activity drastically.

It’s possible to conclude that mirror neurons are influenced by culture and in turn have an influence on our behavior. The results from this study show us that we are more prepared to understand and empathize with members of our own culture and ethnicity than those who are not. This also explains why we connect faster and easier with members of our own culture.

Mirror Neurons, empathy, and psychopathy

Psychopathy is a personality disorder distinguished by a superficial charm, pathological lies, and low empathy.

It’s common for psychopaths to lead a criminal life, however, not all become, serial killers or murderers. Some can actually lead a normal life.

If these psychopaths are not capable of empathizing, does that mean their mirror neurons are not working? A recent study answered this question.

Researchers observed the brain activity of two groups (18 psychopaths and 26 healthy people) while they watched short videos. The videos showed images of hands touching, gently, painfully, socially, rejecting each other and neutrally. They were instructed to watch the video and then to try to feel what the people were feeling. The next part of the study the participants were hit with a ruler to register their pain area in the brain.

Scientists found that only when psychopaths were asked to feel something did they actually feel something, mirror neurons even activated the same way as in the other group. However, when no instruction was given, the psychopath’s group showed less activation of the mirror neurons and pain receptors of the brain.

It’s not that psychopaths don’t have empathy, it’s that it’s a switch that can be activated and deactivated, and by default, it is always deactivated.

Mirror Neurons and Autism

Symptoms of autism include a delay in language and strained emotional recognition. They are not capable of perceiving different emotions, including their own.

Scientists, therefore, studied the mirror neurons in people with autism to check if they were “broken”. They found that the system has a developmental delay, where the activity is slower, weaker and less activated than in others. Nonetheless, the activity increases with age and by age 30 it becomes normal and then unusually elevated.

Other studies have discovered that not all people with autism have a delay in these neurons. They can be activated normally by familiar faces.

Hope you found this article interesting. Please leave a comment below!


Molnar-Szakacs, I., Wu, A. D., Robles, F. J., & Iacoboni, M. (2007). Do you see what I mean? Corticospinal excitability during observation of culture-specific gestures. PLoS One, 2(7), e626.

Meffert, H., Gazzola, V., den Boer, J. A., Bartels, A. A., & Keysers, C. (2013). Reduced spontaneous but relatively normal deliberate vicarious representations in psychopathy. Brain, 136(8), 2550-2562.

This article is originally in Spanish written by Andrea García Cerdán, translated by Alejandra Salazar.

College-educated people recover better from a brain injury

College-educated people recover better from a brain injury

College education is often seen as an investment that will pay back for a lifetime, as it helps have better job opportunities or earn more money. It may also improve recovery after traumatic brain injury, according to a new study.

The study published in Neurology on April 23rd, 2014 suggests that the more years of education people have, the more likely they will recover from a traumatic brain injury.

Researchers from the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine found that people who had some college education or a college degree were more likely to go back to work or school disability-free after a traumatic brain injury, than people with no high school diploma.

Earlier studies had shown that education might have a protective effect when it comes to degenerative brain diseases like Alzheimer’s. Scientists have theorized that education leads to greater “cognitive reserve,” which researchers described in the Neurology paper as the idea that “individuals have inherent differences in their vulnerability to the effects of aging or brain legions, and perhaps also in their capacity to adapt or compensate for such processes.”

In other words, the brains of people with greater cognitive reserve may be more resilient and have greater ability to keep functioning in the face of damage. Researchers said that the theory goes that people with higher levels of education have greater cognitive reserve.

“Added capacity allows us to either work around the damaged areas or to adapt,” said Eric B. Schneider, an assistant professor of surgery at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.

Schneider and his colleagues suspected that cognitive reserve might play an equally important role in helping people rehab from acute brain damage that results from falls, car crashes and other accidents as it does in Alzheimer’s disease.

For the new study, the researchers examined the medical records of 769 people who were at least 23 years old when they experienced a traumatic brain injury. Participants were followed for a year or more after their injury. Of these people, 24 percent did not finish high school, 51 percent had 12 to 15 years of education or had finished high school or some post-secondary education, and 25 percent had at least an undergraduate college degree or 16 or more years of education.

Researchers found an association between greater education levels and greater likelihood of returning to work or school a year later with no disability after the traumatic brain injury. Specifically, just 10 percent of those who did not have a high school diploma were able to go back to school or work disability-free a year after the injury, compared with 31 percent of people who had some college education. Those with college degrees were most likely to go back to school or work without disability – 39 percent of them did so.

In addition, the odds of living disability-free after a traumatic brain injury were increased nine-fold for people who had 20 or more years of education, compared with those with fewer than 12 years of education, the researchers found.

While the study shows associations between education and cognitive reserve and recovery from a brain injury, the researchers noted that education is only a surrogate for cognitive reserve, and not a direct marker.

“While available published research supports the construct of education as a marker of reserve, it remains unclear whether higher education achievement is causatively linked to great cognitive reserve, results from it, or both,” they wrote in the study. “Education attainment itself is not solely reflective of intellectual or cognitive abilities. Motivation to succeed and self-discipline, as well as socioeconomic status, are likely also associated with higher levels of education and may have important roles in determining the degree of post-TBI recovery.”

Start building your cognitive reserve now by training your brain with CogniFit.

Keeping the brain fit for the start of the new school year

Keeping the brain fit for the start of the new school year.

Studies have shown that cognitive factors and the level of cognitive skills can help predict performance at school and for exams such as the SAT and GMAT.

Having strong cognitive abilities can help develop the capacity to learn and retain new text-based information, draw numerical inferences and better use short-term and long-term memory to access prior knowledge.

Education is a key component of success and brain training is essential to assess and train cognition. Find more information here.