Imagine sitting in class and shading in a circle on a multiple-choice test. You would not think that simple action has a lot to do with creativity. However (when combined with divergent thinking) the focus of today’s topic is an integral component of problem-solving. The process that goes into answering standard questions opens up a world of possibilities known as convergent thinking.
What is Convergent Thinking?
While studying human creativity, psychologist Joy Paul Guilford first created the term as the opposite of divergent thinking.
When presented with a problem, it allows someone to arrive at a solution by analyzing the information available to them and later applying established rules and reasoning. It relies heavily on logic. Its purpose is to decrease the chance of ambiguity—seeking to bridge the gap between multiple interpretations.
Ideally, it leads to one correct answer or method to solve a problem. Examples are IQ tests, standardized tests, math quizzes, and spelling tests.
Convergent VS. Divergent Thinking
Being linear and systematic, convergent thinking is straightforward. It filters ideas into a single solution.
The process focuses on the questions, “why?” and “what’s best?”
Contrarily, divergent thinking is web-like – creating connections between ideas. Divergent thinking generates multiple ideas that are original, open to more than one solution, and unconcerned with the risks or limitations.
While different in concept, convergent and divergent thinking go hand-in-hand. Typically, we use divergent thinking to generate multiple ideas followed by convergent thinking to analyze and narrow down those ideas.
Convergent Thinking and Brain Activity
Brain activity in convergent thinkers is unique.
An electroencephalogram (EEG) can measure such activity. Electrodes on the scalp measure a person’s brain waves. It causes a distinct increase in Theta bands, which is a type of brain wave linked to learning, memory, and intuition.
Studies of patients with hippocampal damage suggest that the ability to apply convergent thinking is associated with the hippocampus, the part of the brain responsible for memory (Warren et al., 2016).
Neurotransmitter systems are also involved in carrying out signals to the brain. Convergent thinking function is greater when lower levels of dopamine (the chemical for arousal, thinking, and planning) are present in the nervous system.
Convergent Thinking and Personality
Thinking processes affect personality. This is known as the Big Five method (or the 5 basic dimensions) …
- Openness – Curious, imaginative, sensitive to inner feelings
- Conscientiousness – Efficient, organized, and diligently hardworking
- Extraversion – Enjoys interacting with the world, talkative, energetic
- Agreeableness – Considerate and kind to others, optimistic about human nature
- Neuroticism – Sensitive and nervous, likely to be moody, anxious, or depressed, easily angered
After assessing brain activity studies, researchers conclude that divergent thinking (with its emphasis on creativity) is specifically linked to the traits of openness and extraversion. However, core personality traits didn’t have an effect. That being said, cognition does affect mood. Convergent thinkers tend to display more negative moods than their divergent thinking counterparts.
Executive Function Skills For Convergent Thinking
Executive functions are cognitive skills that assist in goal formation and achievement. There are three main areas: working memory, cognitive flexibility, and inhibitory control. Like this type of thinking, we practice executive function skills in daily life. These skills have a predominant role in creativity.
Executive function skills include but are not limited to:
Attention and Initiation
“Attention” is an executive function that helps us stay focused on the task at hand. It’s especially important for it because narrowing down one best solution requires focus. Additionally, attention helps sustain initiation—the executive function responsible for beginning a task and finishing it to completion.
Inhibition is an executive function that utilizes attention and reasoning to control impulsive, automatic responses.
To put it simply, inhibition is part of self-control. A lack of inhibition prevents the ability to discard partial or incorrect solutions. When a person does not have inhibition, it also impacts their attention. They cannot remain focused enough to stay on task. Thus, poor inhibitory control is a disadvantage for convergent thinking.
Although divergent thinking is unconcerned with limitations, the ‘best’ solution determined by convergent thinking tasks cannot be deterred by extensive limitations.
Shifting is the executive function that allows us to adjust to these situations as they change or as limitations arise. In it, focus must shift to narrow down the ideas that were generated during divergent thinking.
Depending on the task, the thinking process can be stressful. Studies conclude that both convergent and divergent thinking tasks induce mood swings (Chermahini et al., 2011). Regulating emotions is the ability to deal with feelings, which is essential in times of stress.
With its focus on filtering ideas, convergent thinking demands the managing of emotions. One has to acknowledge what they are feeling and address those feelings to overcome barriers to the most suitable solution.
Convergent thinking is structured. The executive function, organizing, provides that much-needed structure. Organizing entails planning and prioritizing – each of which is relevant to convergent thinking. It is the point in the thinking process when ideas come to life. One has to identify key priorities to achieve their goals.
IQ Tests and Convergent Thinking
Intelligence is a major component of cognition and thinking. IQ, which stands for intelligence quotient, measures convergent thinking. Questions on standard IQ tests are a prime example of this type of thinking. They measure logic, reasoning, basic knowledge, and thought flow. Intelligence does not depend on creativity, but they do have a relationship.
Indicative of intelligence, higher IQ scores provide a starting point to carry out. Problem-solving increases in difficulty if intelligence is low. However, intelligence does not guarantee creativity. Arriving at a correct textbook answer to a problem does not guarantee the capacity to generate original ideas before delving into the convergent thinking process.
How To Explore Creativity with Convergent Thinking
Most might think that divergent thinking and creativity are closely linked, but that is incorrect. According to the Geneplore model, creativity is a cycle consisting of the generation stage and the exploration stage. Divergent thinking is the generation of ideas and convergent thinking explores ideas to put them in motion.
These general guidelines are beneficial to enhancing creativity with convergent thinking:
Do not dismiss novelty ideas. While divergent thinking is the stage in which original ideas are generated, convergent thinking involves actually working with ideas. Creative ideas may initially seem impossible due to limitations but just think deeper. They may be able to be revised or modified. Step out of the ‘norm’ to courageously approach new ideas others do not understand.
Questions beginning with “what,” who,” “when,” or “where” are typically convergent thinking questions. Convergent questions are less complex, easy to formulate, and strategic in nature. Asking questions creates goals to strive towards. The questions structure the thinking process. They also determine which information should be discarded.
Convergent thinking is an objective experience. After establishing clear goals, those goals become the basis for the thought process. Objectiveness is focal for the organization and planning. Guide all questions around the objectives. This makes sure that we can find a solution without distraction.
Although we all appreciate situations of instant gratification, arriving at the single best solution to a problem is not instantaneous. Be deliberate when practicing convergent thinking. Hasty decisions prematurely eliminate ideas that could have potentially been successful. If overwhelmed, take a break from the process and return later with a fresh perspective.
Convergent Thinking In Education
As mentioned before, convergent thinking is part of our daily lives. One place we often see it is in educational settings. In an educational setting, convergent thinking needs to come from different sources. Teachers are wise to deliver rigid, well-defined information for convergent thinking—not unfocused, open-ended ideas subjected to change. Students can then combine the materials and concepts to get to the right answer.
Examples of convergent thinking in school are study materials like flashcards, rote memorization, and drill learning. Class discussions between students and the teacher also contribute to convergent learning, as it is an opportunity to filter out incorrect ideas.
Techniques of convergent thinking in the classroom are:
Problem-solving processes originate with many ideas generated during divergent thinking. In contrast, those ideas must be organized into groups for convergent thinking. Some of the ideas are likely to be similar. By combining like-ideas, grouping makes the data easier to find the most accurate solution to the problem. Then, we can merge ideas into a single comprehensive solution.
Students benefit from outlining because it offers structure. Too many facts and information can leave people disorganized. Outlining helps things say in our minds. Outlining techniques make sure that we can get gathered research easier from our working memory. This is similar to grouping, except with more structure. Examples of outlining include step-by-step lists, web maps, or reframing questions with multiple choice answers.
Both outlining and grouping are vital to the technique known as filtering. Outlining and grouping present the information in an organized manner to filter or weed out ideas that offer no solution to the problem at hand. Students cannot ‘choose the best answer’ on their exam without methodically eliminating the incorrect answers first.
As with anything, practice makes perfect. Convergent thinking does not come effortlessly. It requires repetition to refine the process.
Akbari Chermahini, S., & Hommel, B. (2012). Creative mood swings: divergent and convergent thinking affect mood in opposite ways. Psychological research, 76(5), 634–640. doi:10.1007/s00426-011-0358-z
Warren, D. E., Kurczek, J., and Duff, M. C. 2016. What relates newspaper, definite, and clothing? An article describing deficits in convergent problem solving and creativity following hippocampal damage. Hippocampus 26(7):835–40. doi:10.1002/hipo.22591